PA Holdings Limited constructed a complex arrangement in order to try and ensure employee bonuses were taxed as dividends rather than employment income.  The company paid a capital contribution into employee benefit trusts, out of which bonuses were paid to select employees in the form of dividends.

The First and Upper-tier tribunals decided that the payments were employment income under Schedule E and dividend income under Schedule F. The effect of this being that they were not chargeable to tax as employment income, only as dividends; but they were earnings for the purposes of NI contributions.

Both parties appealed to the Court of Appeal.  The Court of Appeal overturned the Upper Tier Tribunal ruling that income can be in both schedules E & F. The judge stated that if income falls within Schedule E, it is precluded from falling within Schedule F.

The Court found that the income fell within Schedule E as the amount of payment received by the employee was dictated by the employer.  Therefore the payments were remuneration for employment and subject to Income tax and NICs accordingly.

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