A recent case at the Upper Tribunal considered this question with regard to late payment penalties charged on self-assessment tax returns (B Edwards v CRC, Upper Tribunal (Tax and Chancery Chamber).

The taxpayer incurred  penalties in relation to his 2010-11, 2012-13 and 2013-14 self-assessment tax returns of £3,880 despite there being no tax due.

The taxpayer had already been unsuccessful at the First-Tier Tribunal and so appealed to the Upper Tribunal on the grounds that the notices to file returns had not been issued correctly and with the argument that the penalties were disproportionate to the tax due.

The taxpayer’s appeal was dismissed again.  The Upper Tribunal found that there had been no error in law in the First-Tier Tribunal’s decision regarding the notices to file returns.

On the issue of proportionality, they found that in terms of the European Convention on Human Rights, the penalties were ‘harsh’ but not ‘plainly unfair’ and was therefore not a relevant ‘special circumstance’ which HMRC should have taken into account.

The moral of the story is therefore to file tax returns on time – even where there is no tax to pay!  It is a requirement to file a return where a notice to file has been issued.  Eaves and Co would be very happy to assist if you have a tax return that needs filing.

As you may be aware, new proposed rules on tax compliance, called Making Tax Digital, are being consulted on at present.  We are planning on preparing our own response to the consultation document, and would welcome your thoughts to take on board and incorporate into our thoughts on a response.  In fact, we would suggest you send in your own response, but we would still welcome your input on the points raised.  They are important.

Of the proposed changes, the “digital tax system” is perhaps the one that will cause the biggest changes to advisors, businesses and individuals.  It is under this that the proposed “end of the tax return” would occur.  Individuals will make changes to their digital tax account throughout the year and it is proposed that information would feed in automatically from real-time PAYE and banks and building societies.

A significant proposal is that, under these rules, businesses will be required to keep digital records and to provide quarterly updates to HMRC with summary data from these records.  There appear to be no proposals to help businesses with the cost of appropriate software.  Bearing in mind there would then be an annual taxable profit calculation due after the year end, what is the reason behind the proposal for quarterly reporting?

It is proposed that this would commence from April 2018 for income tax purposes.  The main exemption from the rules will be businesses with turnover of under £10,000, which would seem to help few.

Some of the particular issues that we will look to raise concern the following:

  • The rules are proposed to be mandatory. This certainly raises concerns for certain taxpayers as noted below.  One has to wonder why the rules should be mandatory, when it is claimed by HMRC that they will be welcomed by most taxpayers?
  • Certain individuals and sole-traders may find the rules particularly difficult. These might include elderly taxpayers and those who are not computer literate, or do not own appropriate equipment/software.  Whilst it may be news to those in power, not all people have a PC and certainly not all have mobile phones with internet access (which was claimed to be the solution to not having a PC).
  • Entering sensitive and important financial information on one’s phone may not be ideal in any event. Other HMRC suggestions include asking a family member for help.   However, this overlooks the fact that financial information can be sensitive even (or perhaps particularly) amongst family members.  We feel that this aspect should not be overlooked in the drive towards digital taxation.  We would commend the article in Taxation by Robin Summers FCA on this point.
  • Businesses will be required to submit information to HMRC on a quarterly basis. This could be particularly onerous in the case of small businesses where a multitude of things could [and will for some] cause problems. It may be fine when things are running smoothly, but why add extra burdens?   Life suggests that, unfortunately, there can be upsets…Family problems, business problems, partnership splits, illness, death of [someone] …etc. etc.…  In such circumstances surely no- one would expect the first priority of a business should be to file an HMRC form, ahead of [say] visiting their dying mother?  Once behind, such a short reporting period would make it increasingly difficult to get up to date.  Recent practical experience with HMRC would suggest a “reasonable excuse” let out may be insufficient!  [See previous blogs and recent case law.]
  • Even for the biggest business, access to accurate up-to-date information at short notice could be difficult. Hence, the idea is likely to cause a significant increase in work on administration.  The proposals suggest this would fall disproportionately on small business.  Such businesses, especially start-ups, may therefore decide to opt out of being “HMRC Customers”.  Creating barriers to joining the “Tax Club” would not, in our opinion, appear to be a sensible way forward.  Do people agree?
  • It may be noted that Stock Exchange listed plc’s do not have a compulsory requirement to publish detailed figures every quarter. Why should it be fair to make a small family firm subject to more onerous conditions?
  • The requirement to keep digital records, “as close to real time as possible” again could cause issues for those with limited access to/comfort with technology. There may also be many in businesses where keeping digital records in real time could prove an excessive burden in a practical sense. For example, someone travelling on a music or comedy tour, where time pressures are high.  For them building a pile of receipts is the best that can be hoped for in the short term.  Their Accountants can then help them do the reporting at the end of the year.
  • Business innovation requires flexibility and imagination, not an obsession with bureaucratic record keeping? Such a tight time table as proposed may be ok for a smooth running, continuing business, but growth and change require intensive resource.
  • Importantly, for those with any conception or imagination on what it is like to run a business, [for example, Accountants with real clients] they may blanche at the thought that the first objective of an entrepreneur should be to file Government forms when he is working all hours to try to get a business to produce a profit.  Yes, there should be an obligation to report to HMRC, but there should be a fair interval between striving for an objective and sending in a report on the result.  Sending in a football score after 22.5 minutes is a waste of resource all round. Outcomes can change over time.  Income Tax is based on the profit for the year.
  • Many businesses are seasonal, so use “quiet periods” to catch up with administrative matters. This often enables them to keep staff employed throughout the year, rather than laying them off.  How does the Government wish such businesses to cope with the change?
  • We feel adding extra administrative burdens can only put up an extra barrier to entrepreneurship. Does the Government wish to reduce the economic benefits inherent in the creation of small business, or just encourage them to join the Black Economy?

Of course, others may have other views.  We would like to hear. Please let us know.

The full consultation documents can be found at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/making-tax-digital-consultations.  Honestly, we would be very interested to hear your thoughts.

As the above quotation shows, paying taxes is nothing new.  As we approach the end of January and the deadline for filing and pay tax for the 2014/15 tax year we write to remind you that Eaves and Co are here to help.

Whether you are an individual struggling to understand your tax return form, or have not registered for HMRC’s Online Services in time, or an accountant needing extra assistance with a complex tax issue, we can help and hopefully ensure you are able to file before the 31 January deadline.   We have specialist extensive professional experience and expertise to deal with those knotty technical problems, plus relevant software and access to HMRC Online filing, so can file returns online at short notice.  All this with friendly service!

On another topic, and as a reminder for clients who are having difficulty raising finance, you may recall from previous messages that we have a contact who is involved in raising finance for all sorts of different purposes. Whatever weird and wonderful schemes your clients wish to consider – talk to Jonathan Smith on (Tel: 07778 523499) or (email jgsmith@jgsfinance.co.uk).  Quote reference ‘EVL’.  His website is www.jgsfinance.co.uk/asset-leasing-contract-hire-sale-leaseback.  This includes arranging loans to pay unpleasant tax bills.

As a reminder, Jonathan Smith qualified as a Chartered Accountant with Arthur Andersen but now works solely in raising finance. He is a man I have worked with over many years, and as a former partner of mine, a man who I trust and can recommend highly.

HMRC have released a list of the 10 worst excuses for missing the 31 January tax return deadline, however there are a number of cases where HMRC’s limited definition for what constitutes a reasonable excuse has been exposed.
 
The list of excuses published by HMRC is as follows:
 

  • My pet dog ate my tax return…and all the reminders.
  • I was up a mountain in Wales, and couldn’t find a postbox or get an internet signal.
  • I fell in with the wrong crowd.
  • I’ve been travelling the world, trying to escape from a foreign intelligence agency.
  • Barack Obama is in charge of my finances.
  • I’ve been busy looking after a flock of escaped parrots and some fox cubs.
  • A work colleague borrowed my tax return, to photocopy it, and didn’t give it back.
  • I live in a camper van in a supermarket car park.
  • My girlfriend’s pregnant.
  • I was in Australia.

 
Whilst these excuses are clearly unreasonable, recent cases have shown that HMRC continue to pursue their internal line that only ‘death, disease or disaster’ would constitute a reasonable excuse.  However, the legislation itself simply states that the excuse must be reasonable.  Recent cases have included excuses such as inability to pay (T James V HMRC), HMRC communication failure (M Styles v HMRC), HMRC system failures (Eclipse Generic Ltd v HMRC) and in the case of Spink v HMRC (2014), it was found that it was reasonable for a taxpayer to assume that tax was not payable until the actual tax status had been established.
 
Each case should be determined on its own facts and we believe HMRC are continuing to refuse reasonable excuse claims in circumstances that are “reasonable” under case law.

The tax return season for 2010/11 returns is due upon us.

This year though the rules for penalties have changed
significantly:-

Late Filing

  • Initial £100 late filing penalty still exists
  • From three months late, additional daily penalty
    of £10, up to a maximum of £900
  • From six months late, additional penalty of 5%
    of the tax due (de-minimis £300)
  • From twelve months late, additional 5% or £300
    penalty

Late Payment

5% surcharges will apply at:-

  • 30 days
  • 6 months
  • 12 months

If you’re an accountant, when will you start telling your
clients?

Eaves & Co, Tax Specialists, Leeds, West Yorkshire